Perceived lack of anonymity management

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Does anonymity increase the reporting of mental health symptoms?

Anonymity, an important feature of computer-mediated communication CMCis embedded in this new technology. The internet community is quickly changing and evolving as more of the world comes on-line. Free speech and anonymity have always been important real-world societal issues. These issues are becoming increasingly important as more people discover the digital world and find the need for anonymity in this new society. The citizens of the net feel that anonymity is vital for the protection of freedom of expression.

It is obvious that the technology for anonymity on the internet is readily. With the penetration of the Internet in society, many daily activities involve online interactions using email, list serves, instant messaging, chat rooms, bulletin boards, and video games. Anonymity, exemplified in those online activities, affects both the task and social aspects of online communication including information exchange, decision making, and relationship development.

Interest in the effects of anonymity on identity issues is growing fast with an increasing diversity of empirical studies. In particular, research on deindividuation and its application in the online environment using the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation SIDE [2] is influential and has started to snowball. However, given the fact that the definition and operationalization of anonymity are not agreed-upon among researchers, it poses a problem for generalizing across the results.

This paper first provides a historical account of anonymity research. Early anonymity studies stem from the research on crowd behaviors. A crowd context alters the way in which people see themselves and their social world, as well as the ties that bind individuals [3]. It therefore allows individuals to act upon their understandings even against the constraints of their opponents.

In other words, being an indistinguishable part of the mass leads to a mix of power without responsibility, which in turn makes crowd members act in uncontrolled ways. Incorporating this idea of the crowd mind-set in early anonymity research, social psychologists developed deindividuation theory, which claims that immersion in a group, particularly operationalized in terms of lowered personal visibility, results in a loss of identity, as well as a loss of control.

Once people become anonymous and submerge into the crowd, they lose their individuality, accountability, and personal identity, which often results in anti-social behaviors [4].

perceived lack of anonymity management

Therefore, the early account of anonymity is characterized by its focus on the loss of self by submerging into a collective mind and exhibiting the subsequent negative behavioral effects. The early deindividuation research tends to regard anonymity as antecedent of deindividuation. Largely influenced by descriptions of crowd behavior, Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb [5] defined deindividuation as a state in which people are not seen or paid attention to as individuals in groups or other collectives.

Zimbardo [6] further developed deindividuation into a full-fledged theory. He defined deindividuation as a complex, hypothesized process in which antecedent social conditions change the perception of self and others, thus lowering the threshold of normally restrained behavior such as violating norms. He further claimed that anonymity promotes deindividuation and decreases individual accountability, which in turn reduces the pressure for them to conform to social norms.

In addition to treating anonymity as a source of deindividuation, early deindividuation theorists suggested that anonymity has potentially negative effects on social behaviors such as disinhibition and attraction to deviant groups due to the loss of self and of self-control of individuals in the crowd.

Correspondingly, early CMC research claims that due to deindividuation, online interactions are more likely to engage in hostile expression of strong emotions and feelings, called flaming [10]. However, the emergence of social identity theory SIT and self- categorization theory SCT [11] [12] challenges these ideas, arguing that anonymity does not always lead to anti-normative behavior. Empirical studies challenge the assumed association between anonymity and negative behavior.

For instance, anonymity was found to decrease transgression [6] and to lead to unpredictable results [7]. Diener, Dineen, and Westford [13] found that anonymity did not facilitate disinhibited behaviors in groups.

For instance, Johnson and Downing [14] found that depending on what kind of cues given in the situation positive vs. The SIDE approach is a distinctive and strong perspective in social psychology. SIDE has been proposed to describe, explain and understand both specific and general classes of phenomena of intra- and intergroup behavior [15] [16]. The SIDE model focuses on the way in which people think and behave in particular group situations. Those situations are characterized by the limited perceptions of fellow group members anonymity or limited visibility of oneself to other group members lack of identifiability [17].

An instance of this type of situation is CMC [18]. Social identity processes are considered responsible for the anonymity effects on groups in both face-to-face interactions and in CMC settings.

One of the prominent effects of anonymity in CMC is that there are fewer perceived intragroup differences in the group [18].This paper covers working from home as an employee benefit and looks to gauge the advantages and disadvantages for both employees and employers.

The focus is on employees that work from home on behalf of an employer, not self-employed individuals. The article reviews secondary research on working from home. The primary research included in this paper was conducted via anonymous online surveys. Respondents were assured of anonymity, and ranged in their functional roles.

The survey included ranking questions, as well as freeform short answer questions. This primary research is not positioned to be statistically representative of all employees and employers. This primary research does reflect a gauge on perspectives on working from home as a job benefit. Ultimately the results suggest that employees hold a very positive perspective on working from home, however, more can be done to help ensure perceptions on workplace promotional opportunities remain consistent for employees that work in an office or for home.

Research also suggests that the greatest challenge for managers remains a lack of trust in results from employees they cannot physically see in the same location.

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Quick search Journals Articles. Keywords Telecommuting working from home employee benefits organizational behavior virtual employees.Metrics details. Sound human resources HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated.

The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted.

The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions.

A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed.

To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical.

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There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully assume these responsibilities and who can continuously improve the status of employees at their organizations. The upcoming accreditation survey of Lebanese hospitals presents an opportunity to strengthen HR management and enhance competencies of existing HR managers.

Implications of Anonymity in Cyber Education

Recognizing HR challenges and the importance of effective HR strategies should become a priority to policy makers and top managers alike. Study findings may extend to other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Peer Review reports.Perception surveys are most often used when one is trying to find out how people understand or feel about their situations or environments. They are used to assess needs, answer questions, solve problems, establish baselines, analyze trends, and select goals.

Surveys reveal what exists, in what amount, and in what context. However, they can be used far beyond just a way to gather information. They can:. Since almost all major companies and industries are conducting surveys, it is all the more important that companies be confident that the survey chosen will provide responses that will be useful to its operation.

In other words, the survey must be reliable and validated. In order to get everyone thinking and talking about safety in the same way, it is necessary that perception surveys be conducted at all levels in a company. That is the only way true communication can begin. Perceptions are the way people organize and interpret their sensory input, or what they see and hear, and call it reality. These differences can be due to various life experiences, levels of education, and personal factors such as attitudes, interests, and motives.

For example, the persons in various employment categories may perceive the same process, such as safety, totally differently:. Therefore, one of the major goals of a perception survey is to align the perception of safety along the same lines for all organizational members. In order to be successful, it is imperative that a perception survey must be both reliable and valid.

Reliability means that results obtained will be the same if repeated with the same people the following day, the answers to questions are of the same quality no matter where they are asked, and that several questions measure a single concept.

Validity means that the instrument measures what it is supposed to measure, that all questions are accurately measuring the concepts they are intending to measure, and that every question relates directly and statistically to safety. In other words, the right questions are being asked to obtain meaningful usable responses to increase safety performance.

Therefore, if you decide to use a survey in your company, you should be aware of what the survey is based on and why each question is asked.

perceived lack of anonymity management

With a scientifically validated survey there are reasons for asking specific questions because each question is scientifically and statistically related to safety performance. The desired responses related to high safety performance are already known. This fact allows for developing policies and programs, as well as formulating action plans, based on scientific data.

perceived lack of anonymity management

As a result, the survey will be predictive as well as descriptive. The desired mode of action can then be directed accordingly and the ongoing problems that chip away at productivity and profits - such as poor safety performance - can be improved or eliminated.

The term "culture" has now come into its own and many non-experts are rushing to take advantage of its popularity, including administering surveys which lack both reliability and validity. There has also been a recent movement in do-it-yourself or in-house surveys.

However, these assessments will generally not be successful because the responses to the questions may be ambiguous and open to interpretation because they are not scientifically evidence-based and lack any basis in theory or in fact. Administration and conduction of the survey is crucial. Confidentiality and anonymity must be absolutely guaranteed. Otherwise, respondents will not be honest and the survey results will be essentially useless.

It is only with the assurance of anonymity and confidentiality that employees will feel safe responding to questions truthfully. No one in the company should be able to identify the respondents or how individual employees have responded. People have to trust whoever is administering the survey to be assured that their identities will be protected.

That is the only way they will give honest answers. Many employees seem to have a perceived lack of confidentiality with online surveys. Therefore, even though more time-consuming for the administrator of the survey, paper and pencil surveys are highly recommended. The administration and analysis of the survey by an independent objective third party is strongly advised. To further assure employees that all completed survey forms will not be seen by anyone in the company, they should be removed from the premises when the survey administrator leaves.

Another reason for third party objective administration of surveys is that with in-house surveys employees may fear retribution for speaking out against perceived hazards.Encryption and anonymity are necessary tools for the full enjoyment of digital rights and enjoy protection by virtue of the critical role that they play in securing the rights to freedom of expression and privacy.

For instance, they enable private communications and can shield an opinion from outside scrutiny, particularly important in hostile political, social, religious and legal environments. Where States impose unlawful censorship through filtering and other technologies, the use of encryption and anonymity may empower individuals to circumvent barriers and access information and ideas without the intrusion of authorities.

Journalists, researchers, lawyers and civil society rely on encryption and anonymity to shield themselves and their sources, clients and partners from surveillance and harassment.

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Artists rely on encryption and anonymity to safeguard and protect their right to expression, especially in situations where it is not only the State creating limitations but also society that does not tolerate unconventional opinions or expression.

Encryption and anonymity are especially useful for the development and sharing of opinions online, particularly in circumstances where persons may be concerned that their communications may be subject to interference or attack by state or non-state actors.

These are therefore specific technologies through which individuals may exercise their rights. Accordingly, restrictions on encryption and anonymity must meet the three-part test to justify the restriction.

According to the UNSR on Freedom of Expression, while encryption and anonymity may frustrate law enforcement and counter-terrorism officials and complicate surveillance, state authorities have generally failed to provide appropriate public justification to support the restriction or to identify situations where the restriction has been necessary to achieve a legitimate goal.

Encryption refers to a mathematical process of converting messages, information or data into a form unreadable by anyone except the intended recipient, and in doing so protects the confidentiality and integrity of content against third party access or manipulation.

Outright prohibitions on the individual use of encryption technology disproportionately restricts the right to freedom of expression as it deprives all online users in a particular jurisdiction of the right to carve out a space for opinion and expression, without any particular claim of the use of encryption being for unlawful ends.

Section 29 of ECTA provides for the establishment and maintenance of a register of cryptography providers, as well as the particulars that must be recorded in the register, including the name and address of the cryptography provider, as well as a description of the type of cryptography service or product being provided. While the states supporting such measures typically claim that a legal framework is necessary to intercept the content of encrypted communications, the UNSR on Freedom of Expression notes that such states have failed to demonstrate that criminal or terrorist use of encryption serves an insuperable barrier to law enforcement objectives.

Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

There is a key role for encryption to play in data protection. The processing of personal data is naturally associated with a certain degree of risk. Especially nowadays, where cyber-attacks are nearly unavoidable for companies above a given size. Therefore, risk management plays an ever-larger role in IT security and data encryption is suited, among other means, for these companies.

The GDPR deliberately does not define which specific technical and organisational measures are considered suitable in each case, in order to accommodate individual factors. However, it gives the controller a catalogue of criteria to be considered when choosing methods to secure personal data.

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Those are the state of the art, implementation costs and the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing. In addition to these criteria, one always has to consider the severity of the risks to the rights and freedoms of the data subject and how likely those risks could manifest. This basically boils down to the following: The higher the risks involved in the data processing and the more likely these are to manifest, the stronger the taken security measures have to be and the more measures must be taken.

Encryption as a concept is explicitly mentioned as one possible technical and organisational measure to secure data in the list of Art. Again, the GDPR does not mention explicit encryption methods to accommodate for the fast-paced technological progress. When choosing a method one must also apply the criteria catalogue above. Encryption of personal data has additional benefits for controllers or processors; for example, the loss of a state of the art encrypted mobile storage medium which holds personal data may not necessarily be considered a data breach that must be reported to the DPA.

In Aprilthe DPAs of the EU, represented in the Article 29 Working Party WP29published a statement regarding encryption and its impact on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of their personal data in the EU. WP29 went on to note three key points: You should also ensure that you keep your keys secure, and have processes in place to generate new keys when necessary to do so. Anonymity has been recognised for the important role it plays in safeguarding and advancing privacy, free expression, political accountability, public participation and debate.

In the words of the U. Unfortunately, the right to remain anonymous has been under steady attack in the online world. Governments and corporations have attempted to unmask unpopular speakers through subpoenas directed at the websites they visit. An individual cannot have a reasonable expectation that his or her privacy is being protected without the ability to control what information is shared about them and how that information is used.

Lack of privacy, or even perceived lack of privacy, is understood to have a chilling effect on freedom of expression, leading to self-censorship.

perceived lack of anonymity management

Additionally, anonymity is an important enabler of the right to freedom of association and assembly online and the right to be free from discrimination.The topic of anonymity in cyber education presents ethical concerns as well as benefits. This is a risk that online learners take and which instructional designers must minimize by planning for interactions that increase social presence.

Anonymity also brings about the added concerns of academic integrity and authenticity. This chapter will explore ethical and social implications of anonymity in cyber education. Anonymity affects class discussions, emerging online identities, and interpretations.

This brings a new freedom for learners or instructors who do not want to feel categorized, such as those with a physical disability who could be perceived negatively Lance, The benefits of anonymity also create challenges.

Constructivist learning theories support online instructional modeling strategies that may help enhance social presence and thus reduce the feelings of remoteness. While some individuals may actually prefer seclusion, most online learners either choose or are required to actively participate in the course. New social norms are developed within the course room as students get to know each other through interactions. These norms require that individuals use new communication skills Kerka, Monitoring within the online environment is also a necessary task for instructors and administrators alike.

E-learning platforms, such as WebCT, not only let instructors monitor how learners are using the course room, but also offer features for administrators to go behind the scenes and assess the effectiveness of the instructor. There is a dichotomy in a technological society: on one hand, anonymity is one of the characteristics of technology; on the other hand, evolving technologies are making anonymity increasingly less evident. Misconduct and improper use of the Internet have prompted governments around the globe to seek regulation and control over the anonymity inherent in Web-based communications.

Anonymity is the capability to act in private. Privacy means the ability to act without being known or isolated from the invasion of others. Through anonymity, individuals have the freedom to think and express their ideals, even if these ideals may not be in favor politically or socially.

It also offers protection from ridicule and retribution. Being unreachable though, has other consequences Nissenbaum, Some of these consequences include identity theft, lack of authenticity, and lack of personalization.President Trump's purge of the so-called 'deep state' now extends to top Pentagon positions.

By Jeff Schogol May 19, President Donald Trump has always prized loyalty in his subordinates, but news about pending personnel moves at the Pentagon could indicate the president is determined to root out perceived enemies within the Defense Department. Jonathan Swan of Axios first reported in February that the White House had compiled a list of civil servants across the government who should be dismissed because they allegedly had not been loyal enough to the president.

The ousted government officials will reportedly be replaced by people who are more ardently pro-Trump. Since then, it has emerged that Trump intends to nominate retired Army Brig. Anthony Tata, a Fox News contributor, to fill the No.

Peter Singer, of the New America think tank in Washington, said he has doubts that either Tata or Cutrone are qualified for senior leadership roles in the Pentagon and he doubts they would have been appointed to the Defense Department under previous administrations, both Republican and Democrat.

However, Singer said he does not believe the two appointments would undermine Esper, who has already shown that he is more than willing to comply with the White House.

Tata did not respond to multiple requests for comment. When asked about personnel moves at the Pentagon, the White House insisted there is nothing untoward Cutrone's his pending appointment.

While the recent personnel moves may signal a more aggressive push by the president to exert direct control over the Pentagon, the White House has been deeply involved in selecting officials for defense jobs since the beginning of the Trump administration. The president is retaliating against defense officials who argued in favor of providing the military aid Ukraine and anyone who stood up to Trump himself, said Evelyn Farkas, a former Defense Department official in the Obama administration whose purview included Russian and Ukraine.

Gauging Perceived Benefits from ‘Working from Home’ as a Job Benefit

Farkas said she is also concerned that Trump is appointing people to the Defense Department based on loyalty rather than competence. For example, Tata is expected to be nominated to become the undersecretary of defense for policy, a job not typically held by a retired general officer due to concerns about civil-military relations. And since many defense experts have voiced their opposition to Trumpthe president has a limited pool of candidates to draw upon, said the former official, who added he does not think the president is placing loyalty above competence when appointing civilians to the Pentagon.

The official said Cutrone's position as deputy assistant secretary for international security affairs should not include vetting Pentagon officials, which is normally handled by the White House liaison office.

Moreover, Cutrone's job should keep him so busy that he is not expected to have time to focus on personnel decisions, the official said. Still, the official said he does have concerns about Tata over his reported extramarital affairs because it raises questions about his honesty. Jeff Schogol View Jeff Schogol's articles.

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The gunshot wound that killed Lance Cpl. Riley S. Kuznia was not self-inflicted. Get the latest in military news, entertainment and gear in your inbox daily. Trump is purging the Pentagon of perceived enemies and installing loyalists in their place, critics say President Trump's purge of the so-called 'deep state' now extends to top Pentagon positions. By Jeff Schogol May 19, News.

The Loyalty Purge While the recent personnel moves may signal a more aggressive push by the president to exert direct control over the Pentagon, the White House has been deeply involved in selecting officials for defense jobs since the beginning of the Trump administration.